Adaptive Robotic Fiber Winding System For Multiple Types Of Optimized Structural Components
Adaptive robotic fibre winding system for multiple types of optimized structure components Abstract Problem statement The increasing prevalence of digital and automation technologies in fabrication process has significantly improved the productivity of customized none-standard building component[1-3]. Fibre composite materials, for their performative material characteristics, has showcased significant potential in fabrication of architecture parts, such as the coreless fibre winding (CFW) [4-7] developed for large-scale monocoque structure and adapted modularized component [8, 9]. CFW has performed exceptional performability for large-scaled customized structure, with highly flexible and structural-efficient FRP composite material, and extraordinary sustainability, by significantly minimizing the waste in formwork construction and demoulding process. However, current CFW technology was implemented with one-off prefab support frames during winding process, such solid framework limits the flexibility for the aggregate components design, and is a trade off to the lightweight fabricated performative fibre structure. Article aim This article proposes a robotic fibre weaving technology based on adaptive temporary support, which expands the existing CFW technology by integrating robotic assembly and robotic weaving in the fabrication of customized component. Rather than involving a prefab framework in the system, the new technology utilises robotic positioning of temporary support points that accommodates a large variation of component geometries. With high customization and reusability, the new support system allows flexibility for component design and minimizing the fabrication cost for fixed frame. Original contribution Main contributions are listed below: 1. Development of a fibre winding technology with coordinated robotic positioning of temporary support for fabrication for high-customized aggregated component of spatial structure 2. Design and fabrication of two full scale prototypes of different optimized structural systems to validate the flexibility of the proposed method, resolving its digital workflow and assembly details. 3. Numerical modelling to evaluate the structure performance of two fabricated prototypes. 4. Discuss and evaluate the scope of application for the proposed method, and propose how it can be applied in full scale architecture. Methodology FABRICATION 1. Development of robot assembly system. One outperforming scheme in the proposed adaptive fibre winding system is the robotic customized positioning of temporary support instead of a prefab fixed frame. The temporary support system is designed to allow arbitrary reference points positioning within working space for subsequent weaving process instead of being constrained on the prefab frame. The reference points of temporary supports are accurately positioned in physical space with absolute coordinates. Comparing with fixed framework method, this method eliminates the need of prefabrication of fixed frame for each geometric variation of components, as well as framework positioning deviation during the coordinate conversion from physical world to design model. The new method is rooted on the interwinding relationship between robotic assembly and robotic winding. 2. Systematic design of robot weaving system. A systematic weaving design is essential for fabrication implementation. Weaving sequence as a crucial part in the progress affects the generation of the objective geometry and the structure performance of the fabricated components. The robot movement as an equally essential part is largely influential towards the successful fibre winding at the reference anchor points. A systematic design and planning for both segments ascertain a fluent progress for fibre winding process that is collision-free between fibres and robot set-up, avoiding the damage to the prototype during fabrication. Two full scale protypes, with load capacity of 100kg each, are developed based on different types of structure system to validate the flexibility of the proposed system. One is a spatial truss-based and another one is a shell system with fibre winding reflecting on the force distribution on the shell surface. After the completion of weaving process, the temporary support will be disassembly and re-used for the fabrication of up-coming components. EVALUATION 3. Structure test and evaluation of fibre and winded components. Material property directly affects the performance of structure. This article conducts a compression loading test on a fibre weaving unit and conceptually evaluates strength and serviceability capacity. The obtained results are then utilized to approximate the material property in finite element modelling, and informing the distribution of fibre in design 4. Optimization of integrated structure. To further validate the feasibility of the proposed fiber winding method, two tableful scale prototypes are designed based on the two typed of structural systems. A numerically structural analysis is conducted on the two prototypes based on the obtained material property. Based on the results, a structural and geometrical optimization is implemented to inform the fibre distribution in both structure systems to optimize the structure performance with minimum material, incorporated via an digital design workflow to generate the design of two final fabricated prototypes. PRODUCTION 5. Aggregation of the components. With the proposed fabrication method, the individual components of two optimized prototypes are fabricate. To aggregate all the components into final prototypes, an adaptive connection is designed to link all the fabricated units. The two final prototypes validate the feasibility of the proposed method in fabrication of customized structure, providing an abundance of geometrical freedom with effective structure support for general application. Main conclusions This article developed a new fabrication system for large-scale spatial structure based on a combined workflow of robotic assembly and robotic winding. The study validates the feasibility of proposed system via the design, fabrication, and testing of two full scale prototypes. The reusability of the robotic assembled temporary support system in the fabrication process further raises its competitiveness among all the CFW methods. This technology eventually provides a novel method to build adaptive, lightweight, sustainable, low-cost and reliable structures. Future application The proposed fabrication system in this research could be upscaled for the application in transitable house market. It paves an avenue for high customized housing construction, with affordable price, accessible material and sustainable construction. The development of this technology can enhance the productivity in housing market, pursue more aesthetic possibility in house design, and gain more attractions from communities and cities for its low-cost and environmentally friendly. Thus this research meets the following Sustainable Development Goals: • GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure • GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production Keywords: SDG9 Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure; SDG12 Responsible Consumption and Production; digitization and automation; sustainable fabrication; robotic technology; FRP filament winding; rapid assembly; lightweight and customizable structure; stress-optimized structure Reference  N. Hack et al., “Mesh mould: an on site, robotically fabricated, functional formwork,” in Second Concrete Innovation Conference (2nd CIC), 2017, vol. 19, pp. 1-10.  P. Wu, J. Wang, and X. J. A. i. C. Wang, “A critical review of the use of 3-D printing in the construction industry,” vol. 68, pp. 21-31, 2016.  Q. Wang, S. Zhang, D. Wei, and Z. 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Keywords: Sdg9 Industry, Innovation And Infrastructure; Sdg12 Responsible Consumption And Production; Digitization And Automation; Sustainable Fabrication; Robotic Technology; Frp Filament Winding; Rapid Assembly; Lightweight And Customizable Structure; Stress-Opti